AA Report Analysis of Alternatives Report (similar to a Feasibility Study, an evaluation of available options/methods to clean up a site)

ACPS Activated Carbon Pilot Study

activated carbon Safe and widely used technology for the treatment of both drinking water and industrial wastewaters based on its ability to effectively remove organic chemicals such as PCBs

arconic In November 2016, Alcoa successfully separated into two companies—Alcoa Corp. and Arconic. Upon separation, the Massena West forgings and extrusions operations became part of Arconic, which assumed responsibility for the Grasse River remediation project.

armored cap A layer of large rocks that is placed over the sand and topsoil cap where necessary to prevent the cap from being moved or disturbed

CAP Community Advisory Panel

cap A mixture of sand and topsoil placed over contaminated material to prevent PCBs from moving from the sediments into the water and fish

CCLGR Comprehensive Characterization of the Lower Grasse River Report

CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (see Superfund)

CPS Capping Pilot Study

CRREL US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory

Demonstration Project Lower Grasse River Ice Breaking Demonstration Project

dredging Removal of sediments using specially designed equipment and disposing of them in a permitted disposal facility

FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

frazil ice Ice formed in supercooled water (occurs in areas like rapids that are open to the cold air) as small particles that are carried downstream and deposit out in areas of the river with slower moving water, generally as a spongy mass

ice scour This happens when floating ice drifts into ice already in place downstream and jams, forcing high water velocity beneath the bottom of the jam

ICS Ice Control Structure

MED Massena Electric Department

NAS National Academy of Sciences; this group defines themselves as a "private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare"

near shore The area between the upland and where the gentle slope along the shoreline meets the steep slope of the main channel walls; in general, near shore areas are five feet or less in depth

NTCRA Non-Time-Critical Removal Action

NYSDEC New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

NYSDOH New York State Department of Health

PCB Polychlorinated biphenyl; group of chemicals used for a variety of purposes including electrical appliances, hydraulic fluids and caulking compounds; PCBs are persistent in the environment because they are very stable, non-reactive, and heat resistant; PCB production and sales were banned in the United States in 1979 due to concerns that some types of PCBs may cause cancer

pilot study An engineering study of a technology with specific objectives and monitoring requirements

resuspension The lifting of previously settled sediments up into the surrounding water

ROD Record of Decision, A document issued by a state or federal regulatory agency that formally explains what methods will be used to clean up a site

ROPS Remedial Options Pilot Study

silt curtains Flexible fabric barriers that are anchored at the bottom and float at the water surface; used to isolate and contain the materials within a river work area

sediments The layer of soil and mineral at the bottom of surface waters such as streams, lakes, and rivers

Superfund Common name for the federal program established by CERCLA; Superfund authorizes EPA to investigate and cleanup sites where hazardous substances have (or may have) been released into the environment and may pose a risk to human health or the environment

SRMT St. Regis Mohawk Tribe

USEPA or EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency